//
https://maximafoundation.org/ https://gsconsultants.lk/bandarqq/ https://gsconsultants.lk/dominoqq/ pkv games https://revistacipa.com.br/judi-bola-euro-2024/ pkv games https://ashleyadillon.com/ slot77 judi bola https://acapulco.gob.mx/mailer/ https://acapulco.gob.mx/tys/docs/ https://acapulco.gob.mx/pcivil/css/ https://acapulco.gob.mx/pcivil/uac/ https://acapulco.gob.mx/pcivil/recomendaciones/ bandarqq https://economy.tsue.uz/bandarqq/ https://economy.tsue.uz/dominoqq/ https://economy.tsue.uz/pkvgames/ https://economy.tsue.uz/pokerqq/ slot telkomsel slot indosat https://ausacademy.edu.au/pkv-games/bandarqq/ https://ausacademy.edu.au/pkv-games/dominoqq/ pkv games dominoqq bonus new member slot depo 5k pkv games slot thailand slot garansi kekalahan slot dana situs toto slot thailand slot gacor mpo play slot bri slot bca slot dana slot mahjong ways slot77 slot77 slot123 pkv games pkv games pkv games pkv games pkv games bandarqq dominoqq dominoqq dominoqq dominoqq MPO mpo play mpo play bandarqq pkv games domino99 dominoqq bandarqq bandarqq pkv games pkv games pkv games jam hoki main slot jam hoki main slot bandarqq bandarqq pkv games bandarqq bandarqq bandarqq bandarqq dominoqq dominoqq dominoqq pkv games pkv games pkv games pokerqq mpo slot indonesia dominoqq bandarqq pkv games bandarqq pkv games pkv games bandarqq dominoqq pkv games pkv games slot kamboja
https://kampungjawalsm.id/pyramid/ https://kampungjawalsm.id/slot77/ https://teradata.co.id/dana/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/slot-depo-10k/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/slot-bonus-new-member/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/slot-thailand/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/slot-toto/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/joker123/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/joker123/ https://sraten.tuntang.semarangkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2023/sbobet-sbobet88-judi-bola-mix-parlay/ https://bpsk.kuningankab.go.id/images/layanan-demo/ slot thailand
A. Asadpoure, J. Guest, L. Valdevit
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 51 (2015) 385-396
Publication year: 2015

Abstract

In this article, we propose a method to incorporate fabrication cost in the topology optimization of light and stiff truss structures and periodic lattices. The fabrication cost of a design is estimated by assigning a unit cost to each truss element, meant to approximate the cost of element placement and associated connections. A regularized Heaviside step function is utilized to estimate the number of elements existing in the design domain. This makes the cost function smooth and differentiable, thus enabling the application of gradient-based optimization schemes. We demonstrate the proposed method with classic examples in structural engineering and in the design of a material lattice, illustrating the effect of the fabrication unit cost on the optimal topologies. We also show that the proposed method can be efficiently used to impose an upper bound on the allowed number of elements in the optimal design of a truss system. Importantly, compared to traditional approaches in structural topology optimization, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational time and reduces the dependency on the threshold used for element removal.