Metamaterials are engineered materials with unusual, unique properties and advanced functionalities that are a direct consequence of their microarchitecture. While initial properties and functionalities were limited to optics and electromagnetism, many novel categories of metamaterials that have applications in many different areas of research and practice, including acoustic, mechanics, biomaterials, and thermal engineering, have appeared in the last decade. This editorial serves as a prelude to the special issue with the same title that presents a number of selected studies in these directions. In particular, we review some of the most important developments in the design and fabrication of metamaterials with an emphasis on the more recent categories. We also suggest some directions for future research.